Kambar Almat 3-03



MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF KAZAKHSTAN REPUBLIC

SULEYMAN DEMIREL COLLEGE LYCEUM

 

 

 

 

 

 

COURSE WORK

Subject: Organization management system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Done by: Kambar A.

Group: 3-03 “Economics”

Checked by: Sagyndykuly Y.

 

 

Almaty 2017

Plan.

1. Introduction.

2. General concept.

3. Methods and models of organization management.

4. The structure of the control system.

5. Basic types of organizational management.

6. General concept.

7. The control system of the Russian company.

8. Conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION.

«Organization Management System» — one of the key concepts of the theory of organization, which is closely related to the objectives, functions, process management, performance management and the distribution of powers between them pursuant to certain purposes. Under this system flows entire administrative process, which involves managers at all levels, categories and professional specialization. the organization’s management system is designed to ensure that all the processes occurring in it were implemented promptly and efficiently. Hence the attention paid to her heads of organizations and experts, with a view to continuous improvement, the development of both the entire system and its individual components. It is obvious that the study and improvement of management systems, both within individual organizations and the state, society as a whole contribute to the early achievement of goals and objectives. Management and managing became the focus of attention at the end of the nineteenth century as a response to the ever increasing size of organizations. The issues which were then debated among scholars and practitioners alike still hold today. The chosen theme of the course work is relevant, because the experience of leading companies shows that the key to the successful operation of the enterprise is, first of all, a clear organization of the organization’s management.

Management as an interdependent management system is aimed at achieving the totality of goals and objectives facing the organization. At the heads of each level of management, specific objectives should be formulated within its competence. In the management of personnel — ensuring high motivation of personnel, the formation of the conditions necessary for the development of the creative potential of workers. The success of the company as a whole depends on how correctly and clearly formulated the goals and objectives.

The purpose of this course work is to review and study modern methods and models of organization management.

Tasks are formed in accordance with the main goal and includes:

1. study of the concept and essence of management methods;

2. study of the essence of management models;

3. Analysis of methods and models of government by the example of companies with different types of activities.

 

Methods of organization management

The implementation of functions and management principles is carried out through the application of various methods. Management methods are a set of methods and methods of influencing a managed object to achieve the goals set by the organization. The word «method» — of Greek origin, means the way to achieve the goal. Through management methods, the main content of management activities is realized.

In the practice of management, as a rule, various methods and their combinations are applied simultaneously, that is, all control methods are organically complementary and are in constant dynamic equilibrium.

The direction of management methods is always the same — they are aimed at people engaged in various types of work — the personnel of organizations.

Personnel management includes the whole system. The system of work with personnel is a set of interrelated actions to provide management in work of a certain quality and quantity.

Personnel management at the enterprise is a kind of activity that allows to realize, generalize a wide range of issues of individual adaptation to external conditions, to take into account the personal factor in building the personnel management system of an enterprise. There are three factors that affect the personnel of an enterprise.

1. The hierarchical structure of the enterprise, where the main means of influence are relations of power and subordination, pressure on the person from above, through coercion, control over the distribution of material wealth.

2. Culture, that is, a group of people working out by a society, an enterprise,

Values, social norms, behaviors that regulate the actions of the individual, cause the individual to behave this way, and not otherwise without apparent coercion.

3. market — a set of equitable relationships based on the sale and purchase of products and services, property relations, the equilibrium of the interests of the seller and the buyer.

The following basic types are distinguished in the system of personnel management methods:

Administrative methods;

Economic methods;

Socio-psychological methods.

GENERAL CONCEPTS.

System — this whole set up of parts and elements that interact with each other, for purposeful activity. Among its main features should include: a plurality of cells, the integrity and the unity between them, the presence of certain structures, etc. However, the system has properties different from the properties of its elements. Every system, in general, has input action processing system, outc omes and feedback

1. Scheme of the system

System

Entry Exit

 

 

Feedback

 

Management — is the process of impact on the system in order to maintain a predetermined or transfer it to a new state.

Control system:

  — The mechanism of such effects;

— The totality of all the elements, subsystems and their relationships, as well as the processes that ensure the functioning of the organization in the desired direction (see Fig.2.).

 

2. Driving system with control device.

Fig. 3. Scheme of the organization’s management system.

 

It is obvious that the organization’s management system has the ability to adequately respond to external and internal influences, which gives organizations the ability to adapt to changing conditions, making it a self-regulating.

 

STRUCTURE OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

 

Currently, as part of the organization’s management system are the following subsystems:

1. The management structure;

2. Control Technology.

3. Management functions.

4. The control methodology (see. Fig. 4).

 

Fig. 4. The elements of an organization’s management system.

In this case, the control system can be regarded as the position of a static, ie as a kind of mechanism (control mechanism), and with the dynamics of the position as management activities.

Structure and control technology are the elements of the mechanism of management and include, as appropriate:

— The functional and organizational structure of the scheme of organizational relations, professionalism of staff;

— Computer and office equipment, furniture, communication channels (network), document management system. The management structure will be considered separately and in relation to the control equipment should be noted that the harmony and efficiency of the control system to a large extent depends on the system of the enterprise workflow. From it depends directly on the number of accounting errors and planning, and responsiveness to certain impact. «Paper» accounting will inevitably give way to the «computer». Inevitably thing of the past «punishable» initiative. It is proved in practice and is becoming more widespread practical application of the understanding that the functionality of the workplace organization improves the productivity of the employee and the manager is not only technically, but also as a result of their positive emotional state.

management process, as an element of management activities, including: communications system, the development and implementation of management decisions, information support.

The methodology also includes goals, laws, principles, methods and functions of management technology and practice management. The main objective of the organization’s management system is put the formation of professional management. As a process management activity — a set of actions leading to the formation and improvement of the relations between the parts of the system. As a phenomenon — it is the union of the elements (objectives, programs, funds) for the implementation of the organization’s mission. Administrative activity is seen as a synthesis of art and science. The scientific part of administrative activity consists of pragmatic management techniques, rules, laws, ie little depends on the individual manager. Art, in this context, is the use of the manager of your creativity, intuition, subjective experience, common sense, etc. Here there is a direct dependence on the personal qualities of the manager, with the qualities of common sense and intuition, or rather their presence to a greater or lesser degree, are almost innate feature of this subject.

Of greatest interest is the organization’s management structure is, in many respects, defined in relation to other elements. The structure of the governing bodies and positions, the distribution between the powers and responsibilities often predetermines and management techniques, and the process and methods, and functions.

five steps should be allocated among the stages of understanding the essence of management and build management structures:

1. The organization is represented as the sum of labor operations. Manage organization — it means to organize production processes and increase productivity. The organization is designed and controlled by managers.

2. Organization — is the administrative pyramid, the most stable structure (administrative arrangement). It is inherent in the structure of a clear, one-man management, division of labor, the balance of powers and responsibilities, corporate morality.

3. The organization — bureaucracy, where a person — a cog in a huge machine, the material for the construction of the whole, not eligible for individual features. Individuality is suppressed personality development and determination of the precision of instruction virtually «on all occasions.»

4. Elton Mayo in the 30 to 40-years of the twentieth century, proposed to consider the organization as a community and therefore manage it. In his understanding of the people were not cogs in the machine, and are members of the family, he stressed the right of each individual, the opportunity to have their own opinions, relationships, both inside and outside the organization. With this concept to the fore interpersonal and intergroup relations. Management must fit into the psychological structure of the group, be aware of the possibility of spontaneous, uncontrolled, self-organization.

5. All major role, as mentioned above, the organization begins to play a technological basis. Organization — a socio-technical system, ie, the interaction of people with a certain technique. The technical system and the system of interpersonal relations may intersect. From a technical system depends on social relationships, and the latter — a production system. Hence — the organization is characterized as a complex, heterogeneous probabilistic system.

 

MAIN TYPES OF MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS

 

In modern Russia. They are built on fundamentally different bases and have specific features that allow them to identify their rational use and prospects for further development.

1. Historically, the bureaucratic type of organization was formed first. The corresponding concept on the construction of structural structures in the early XX century German sociologist Max Weber. He proposed a normative model of rational bureaucracy, radically changing its effective systems of communication, reporting, pay, structure of work, relations in production. In this model, the idea of ​​enterprises as «organized organizations» that impose stringent requirements on both people and the structure within which they operate. The key conceptual provisions of the normative model of rational bureaucracy are as follows:

1) a clear division of labor, the use of qualified specialists in each post;

2) hierarchy of management, in which the subordinate level is subordinated and supervised by the superior;

3) the existence of formal rules and norms ensuring uniformity in the performance of their tasks and responsibilities;

4) the spirit of formal impersonality, characteristic for the performance of official duties;

5) recruitment in accordance with the qualification requirements for this post, and not with subjective assessments.

The main concepts of the bureaucratic type of governance structure are rationality, responsibility and hierarchy. Weber himself believed that the «exception», «for», «for», «for», «for», «for», «for» and «against.» Clearly formulated prescriptions for each work (what must be done and what methods) does not leave room for the manifestation of subjectivism and an individual approach. This is the fundamental difference between the bureaucratic structure and the historically precedent communal structure, where the main role was given to partnership and skill.

Bureaucratic governance structures have shown their effectiveness, especially in large and super-large organizations, in which it is necessary to ensure a well-coordinated work of large teams of people working for a single goal. These structures allow mobilizing human energy and cooperating people’s labor in solving complex projects, in mass and large-scale production. However, they are inherent in shortcomings, especially noticeable in the context of modern conditions and tasks of economic development. Obviously, first of all, that the bureaucratic type of structure does not contribute to the growth of the potential of people, each of which uses only that part of its abilities that is directly required by the nature of the work performed. It is also clear that if the issues of the organization’s strategy and tactics are resolved only at the highest level, and all other levels are exclusively engaged in the execution of «top-down» solutions, the overall managerial intelligence (which is regarded today as the most important factor of effective management) is lost.

Another flaw in the structures of the bureaucratic type is the impossibility, with their help, to manage the process of changes aimed at improving the work. Functional specialization of structural elements leads to the fact that their development is characterized by unevenness and different speed. As a result, there are contradictions between certain parts of the structure, inconsistencies in their actions and interests, which slows down the progress in the organization.

2. The second mentioned — organic — type of governance structures has a relatively short history and has emerged as an antipode to a bureaucratic organization, whose model has ceased to satisfy many enterprises that are in need of more flexible and adapted structures. The new approach rejects the idea of ​​the effectiveness of the organization as an «organized» and working with a clear clock mechanism; On the contrary, it is believed that this model to carry out radical changes that ensure the adaptability of the organization to the objective requirements of reality is incapable. Researchers of this problem emphasize: another type of organization is gradually emerging, in which improvisation is valued higher than planning; Which is guided by possibilities far more than restrictions, prefers to find new actions, and not to cling to the old; Which values ​​discussion more than calmness, and encourages doubts and contradictions, not faith. In the original definition of the organic type of the structure, its principal differences from the traditional bureaucratic hierarchy were emphasized, such as greater flexibility, less coherence in rules and norms, and the use of group (brigade) labor as the base. Further developments made it possible to significantly supplement the list of properties characterizing the organic type of the management structure. We are talking about the following features. First, decisions are made on the basis of discussion, and are not based on authority, rules or traditions. Secondly, the circumstances that are taken into account when discussing problems are trust, not power, conviction, and not a team, work for a single goal, and not for the sake of executing job descriptions. Thirdly, the main integrating factors are the mission and the development strategy of the organization. Fourthly, creative approach to work and cooperation are based on the connection between the activities of each individual and the mission. Fifthly, the rules of work are formulated in the form of principles, not installations. Sixthly, the distribution of work among employees is not determined by their posts, but by the nature of the problems being solved. Seventh, there is a constant willingness to conduct progressive changes in the organization. The type of structure under consideration involves significant changes in relations within the organization: there is no need for a functional division of labor, the responsibility of everyone working for common success increases. A real transition to an organic type of governance structure requires serious preparatory work. First of all, companies take measures to expand the participation of organizations working in solving problems (through training, raising awareness, interest, etc.), eliminate functional isolation, develop information technologies, radically review the nature of relationships with other companies (entering alliances Or forming virtual companies, where partnerships are realized). It should be noted that the organic type of governance structure is only in the initial phase of its development, and in the «pure» form it is used so far by a few organizations. But the elements of this approach to the management structure have become quite widespread, especially in those companies that are trying to adapt to a dynamically changing external environment.

It should be noted that the above classification of enterprise management structures is not the only one. There are others that have a more applied nature, for example, a classification that divides organizational structures into linear ones; Linear-functional; Project and matrix; Venture and innovative in-house.

RUSSIAN COMPANY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

 

An example of the management system of the State Unitary Enterprise «Federal Research and Production Center» Research Institute of Applied Chemistry «is in many respects characteristic of many large enterprises of the defense complex, and of industrial enterprises in Russia as a whole.

In the methodology of enterprise management, it should be noted that, acting on the basis of Russian legislation, the Charter, the Orders of the Director and the Orders of his deputies, it claims to be profitable, the content of the social sector (polyclinics, settlements, etc.), and the enhancement of the state’s defense potential. In general, technology and practices, methods and functions of enterprise management have remained virtually unchanged since the time of socialist methods of management. Management decisions are made solely, the concentration of functions entrusted to management is high, the interchangeability of managers is insignificant — the «indispensability» of everyone, no one will undertake to take a decision for another. At the same time, the level of responsibility for the decisions made and their execution is low — it is being blurred by their large number and low quality, and the efficiency of management does not stand up to any criticism. Communications between units are mostly verbal, the level of awareness of employees is within the limits that are necessary for the performance of certain work. These factors undoubtedly affected the economic situation of the enterprise.

The enterprise management model is closer to the American one — formalized structure, individual decision-making, etc. At the same time, the level of remuneration of labor is not directly dependent on its results, which, apparently, determines the low level of responsibility. However, in recent years the enterprise began to create structural subdivisions for specific interested managers, determining the direction and objectives of the activity, the degree of isolation from the central administrative apparatus, and the type of financial interaction within the current legislation.

 

 

 

 

 

Table. 1. Japanese and American models of management.

Япония

США

Должность создаётся в соответствии с личными качествами определённого человека.

Неформальные контакты и структура в организации.

Управление ориентированно на группу. Организация как семья. Воздействие на отдельного человека через группу.

Коллегиальное принятие решений, коллективная ответственность.

На первом месте – принципы компромиссности и гармонии. Ориентация на предотвращение конфликтов.

Долгосрочный найм на работу.

Оплата в соответствии со стажем, семейным положением. Предусмотрена процедура ротации.

Проектируется структура предприятия, создаётся должность и на неё подыскивается соответствующий человек.

Структура организации и отношения строго формальны.

Управление ориентированно на конкретного человека.

 

 

Индивидуальное принятие решений, индивидуальная ответственность.

Организационные конфликты – норма, ведущая к развитию организации. Задача менеджеров – разрешать конфликты.

Краткосрочный найм.

Оплата труда и карьера основывается на индивидуальных результатах деятельности.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The management structure is quite typical for defense industry enterprises:

 

The enterprise is headed by a director who organizes all the work of the enterprise and bears full responsibility for its conditions and activities before the state and labor collective. The director represents the enterprise in all institutions and organizations, disposes of the enterprise’s property, concludes contracts, issues orders for the enterprise, adopts and dismisses employees in accordance with labor legislation, applies incentives and imposes penalties on employees of the enterprise, opens bank accounts of the enterprise.

 

Chief Engineer — Deputy Director for General Affairs manages the technical services of the enterprise, is responsible for the maintenance of buildings and structures, the territory of the enterprise and the social sector. The departments subordinate to him:

— Chief mechanic;

— The main power engineer;

— Labor protection services;

— VOHR;

   Human Resources Department;

— a number of separate structural divisions, leading a separate economic activity, such as ATS, jewelry shop, hotel, etc.

The Department of Chief Mechanic, together with its subdivisions, ensures control over the work and adjustment of technological equipment, conducts all types of repair of technological equipment, as well as the installation of new equipment and the dismantling of obsolete equipment.

The Department of the Chief Power Engineer together with its subordinate units ensures the uninterrupted supply of electricity, heat, water, and others to the enterprise. It conducts planning and repairs of power equipment, develops and implements measures for the reconstruction, technical re-equipment and perspective development of the energy economy of the enterprise, conducts the normalization of electricity, heat, fuel, etc., as well as measures to save them, use secondary energy resources, develop technical And organizational measures to increase reliability and increase the service life of power equipment, conduct work to optimize the use of power equipment in production workshops, conduct instruction and training of personnel.

 

The deputy director for economics deals with all financial issues of the enterprise, replacing and presenting the director when distributing the company’s expenses, is responsible for income and payment of taxes and other payments. In his submission are:

   Planning and Economic Department;

— Accounting of the enterprise, consisting of financial, accounting and production groups;

— Commercial department (sales department);

— Structural subdivisions, leading a separate economic activity.

The planning and economic department develops annual and quarterly plans for the enterprise and individual shops, monitors their implementation, determines the ways to eliminate shortcomings, organizes and improves intra-plant and intra-shop planning, develops standards for the formation of economic incentive funds, maintains operational statistics, analyzes the performance of major units, Shops and factories, develops and submits for approval projects, prices for new products, studies and introduces best practices in planning and economic work, etc.

Accounting accounts for enterprise funds and business transactions with material and monetary resources, establishes the results of financial and economic activities of the enterprise, etc.

The commercial department is engaged in the sale of enterprise products, marketing research, advertising activities, etc.

The Department of Labor Organization and Wages develops the staffing table, compiles annual, quarterly, and monthly plans for labor and wages and monitors their implementation, develops measures to increase labor productivity, introduce progressive wage systems, develops regulations on the formation and expenditure of the fund Material incentives, develops technically sound norms of development and conducts an analysis of their implementation, organizes and participates in the development of issues of scientific organization of labor, promotes movement for a collective guarantee of labor and social discipline.

 

The deputy director for production manages the material and technical supply of the enterprise, the technological department, the OTC, and others.

 

The Deputy Director for R & D manages the structural subdivisions of the scientific direction, he manages the development of new products and the completion of existing ones, he carries out communications with other scientific organizations and customers of research and development.

Management of structural units is carried out depending on the direction of their activities and has various features: from bureaucratic-authoritarian management in production units, to elements of the organic in creative divisions and retail divisions.

In relation to the professionalism of management personnel, it should be noted its high level at the top level of the «administrative pyramid» and its sharp decline at the grassroots levels, which is directly related to the level of pay.

The management technique of an enterprise is characterized on the one hand by the veracity and thoroughness of the document circulation, by a sufficient number of production and administrative premises. On the other hand, the document circulation obviously does not meet the requirements of modern reality, computerization and informatization of management is in its infancy, which is primarily due to the economic problems of the enterprise.

The general conclusion in this case is that the enterprise management system needs a thorough analysis and correction of the distortions that have appeared as a result of the reform, it is necessary to search for a certain organizational management vector based on advanced management technologies and theoretical developments.

CONCLUSION

Conclusion on this paper I would like to make the words of article (2):

«Management is the organization, analysis, control. Management is one of the main moments of entrepreneurial activity, the most important factor of its success. Management is hard work, but it’s art, it’s science.

Our advice to the entrepreneur is to be an intelligent, knowledgeable and able manager, and if you can not — hire an intelligent, knowledgeable and able manager. In any case, be prudent in order to correspond to the system of civilized management. «

Quality management systems are set in motion, taking into account the consumer organization. Consumers need products (service), the characteristics of which would satisfy their needs and expectations. The needs and expectations of consumers are constantly changing, which causes organizations to experience the pressure created by the competitive environment (market) and technological progress. To maintain constant customer satisfaction, organizations must constantly improve their products and processes. The QMS of the organization, as one of the tools, gives confidence that they will receive and process products that fully meet the requirements for the established time, the costs of these resources.

Continuous improvement of product quality and reduction of the cost of quality assurance through the use of the PDCA cycle (Deming Cycle) consisting of: planning, action, analysis, correction (elimination of causes of non-compliance, and not simply correction of the results). Creation of confidence among consumers in the absence of marriage due to certification of the quality management system.

The methodology of the quality management system (QMS) is based on the principles of system and process approaches. The principle of systematicity is realized in the management of the company, as a system of interrelated processes aimed at achieving the set goals. The process approach makes it possible to identify the processes most influencing the achievement of goals. At the same time, the inputs and outputs of processes, internal and external customers, suppliers and other interested parties are identified and measured. Thus, the processes performed within the product life cycle determine the construction of the organizational structure of the enterprise. The execution of all processes for all elements of the organizational structure is documented. At the same time, the effectiveness of the quality system at each level is confirmed by appropriate quality data. Accordingly, the modern quality management system combines the organizational structure, documentation structure and information structure, as well as processes that affect quality. Obviously, for the effective functioning of the QMS at the enterprise, these structures should be interrelated, fully covering the organization and all processes.

The organization of the QMS involves the creation of the following documentation structure:

Quality quide

Policies and objectives in the field of quality

Mandatory documented procedures

Procedures and procedures, working instructions

Quality records

 

 

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